Ancient Civilizations >
The ancient Egyptians themselves traced their origin to a land they called Punt, or "Ta Nteru" ("Land of the Gods"). It is believed that the Egyptians originated in what is now southern Sudan or Eritrea and that they eventually settled in the fertile Nile valley where they formed one of the first civilizations.
The first unified Egyptian state was established in 3000 B.C. but archaeological evidence suggests that a developed Egyptian society existed long before that.
Egypt played an important role in the development of human civilization. Its monuments including the Sphinx and the Pyramids are reminders of the greatness of Egypt when most of the rest of humanity was still living as primitive hunter gatherers.
As the millennia passed other more aggressive cultures pressed Egypt, often conquering her, though each time Egypt was able to regain its independence until it was finally conquered by Alexander the Great who established a Greek Dynasty in place of the native Phaoroes. Its last ruler, Cleopatra, succumbed to the power of the Roman Empire and ancient Egyptian civilization was no more.
Texts and Resources Dealing With Egyptian Culture and Civilization
You can read more about ancient civilizations including the the Roman Empire here.